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Nutrafol Growth Activator Hair Serum: A Scientific Analysis & Debunking

Nutrafol is a company that sells a range of supplements and products targeted at hair loss. Nutrafol claims to have a “…whole body approach” to hair loss.[1]Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ (Accessed: 23 February 2023 Marketed as drug-free and vegan, Nutrafol positions itself as a natural alternative to conventional pharmaceutical treatments. However, is there enough data to show that their products actually work?

The Growth Activator Hair Serum is a fairly new offering from Nutrafol, being brought to the market in 2021, and contains “A new and patent-pending advancement in scalp support…” with “Ashwagandha Exosomes to boost cell renewal and naturally activate visibly thicker, stronger hair in as little as 90 days”.[2]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator/ (Accessed: 23 February 2023 Exosomes are small bubble-like packages secreted from cells containing important cargo such as proteins, lipids, and mRNA which are essential for cell signaling, immune responses, wound healing and more.[3]Kalluri, R., LeBleu, V.S. (2020). The biology, function, and biomedical applications of exosomes. Science. 367(6478):eaa6977. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau6977 But is there any evidence that tells us exosomes in hair care products have any beneficial effect?

Key Takeaways:

  • Branding: Nutrafol markets its Growth Activator Hair Serum toward men & women, and as an add-on to its supplements.
  • Unique Selling Point: The key active ingredient inside the Growth Activator Hair Serum is ashwagandha exosomes, which Nutrafol claims boosts cell renewal and naturally activates stronger, thicker hair.[4]Nutrafol, (no date) Hair Serum). Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 23 February 2023 Ashwagandha (or Indian ginseng) is a plant commonly used by Nutrafol which claims that it “balances stress hormones to support a healthy hair growth cycle”.[5]Nutrafol, (no date), Ingredients. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ingredients (Accessed: 23 February 2023
  • Clinical Support: On its website, Nutrafol refers to a study claiming that 87% of participants saw healthier hair after 30 days and that 85% saw improvement in hair quality after 30 days of using the Growth Activator Hair Serum.[6]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 19 February 2023 We could not find the full details of this study anywhere on the website, nor does it appear to be published anywhere after online searches (like PubMed or Google Scholar).
  • Concerns: As mentioned above, the study does not appear to be anywhere that we can see full details, and there don’t seem to be any details regarding safety either. There is also no mechanistic data for Ashwagandha exosomes in any published literature (that would show they could affect hair follicle biology in some useful way). Furthermore, all the other ingredients aside from the Ashwagandha exosomes are easily available and inexpensive to purchase elsewhere, so it is possible to experiment with these products alone instead of paying for the whole product.
  • Recommendations to Nutrafol: Nutrafol should make their data easily accessible so that consumers can see how the studies were completed to make their own minds up about whether the product actually works. Furthermore, it would be helpful for the consumer to see some case studies from previous customers before and after use. Additionally, funding large-scale, placebo-controlled registered trials for this product will help us to understand whether this product is suitable for treating hair loss or not.

What is Nutrafol?

Nutrafol is a well-known company within the U.S. that has received praise and attention from doctors and the media. You can find our previous article on other Nutrafol products in our product reviews section. Nutrafol markets itself as using “100% drug-free, medical-grade, natural ingredients”.[7]Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol. Available at: https://nutrafol.com (Accessed: 20 February 2023 However, the company charges a premium price but offers very little in the way of clinical evidence to support its products.

Released in 2021, Nutrafol also offers a hair growth serum called Growth Activator Hair Serum, in their hair boosters range, which we will focus on in this review. 

Figure 1: Nutrafol Growth Activator Hair Serum. Adapted from:[8]Nutrafol, (no date) Shop. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/products/ (Accessed: 19 February 2023

Who is their Target Consumer?

Nutrafol has products targeted specifically towards men and women, as well as products that can be used by both. The Growth Activator Hair Serum is targeted toward both men and women.

What Nutrafol Products are Offered?

Perhaps most well-known are the supplements offered by Nutrafol, including products named Women, Women’s Balance, Postpartum, and Nutrafol Men. However they also offer a wide range of products marketed towards boosting hair growth, including their most recent offering, called the Growth Activator Hair Serum.[9]Nutrafol, (no date) Shop. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/products/ (Accessed: 19 February 2023

How does Nutrafol Claim its Topical Growth Activator is Unique?

Within the Growth Activator Hair Serum, Nutrafol claims to be using plant exosome technology (patent-pending). Specifically, Nutrafol is using exosomes extracted from the seeds of the Ashwagandha plant used in their other products.[10]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 19 February 2023 

Exosomes are small, bubble-like packages that are secreted from cells that contain lots of proteins, lipids, and other biomolecules like mRNA. Exosomes are secreted from mammalian, plant, and microorganismal cells and have been used in research for drug delivery and regenerative medicine. There has been some research into the use of exosomes for hair re-growth, however as this area of research is still quite new, there are still questions about whether the clinical application is effective for hair growth.[11]Gangadaran, P., Rajendran, R.L., Kwack, M.H., Jeyaraman, M., Hong, C.M., Sung, Y.K., Ahn, B.C. (2022). Application of Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Engineered Nanovesicles for Hair Growth: … Continue reading 

Ashwagandha (also known as Withania somnifera, or Indian ginseng) is a plant native to India that has been used alone or in combination with other treatments for around 3000 years. Nutrafol uses ashwagandha in its other products, claiming that it helps to balance elevated cortisol and builds resistance to stress. Studies have shown that ashwagandha can reduce cortisol levels in stressed individuals, reduce Dehy-droepiandrosterone-sulfate (a steroid precursor that can be converted into androgens and estrogens), and improve blood flow to the scalp, indicating a potential use for hair growth. However, there is little clinical evidence suggesting that it actually works for the treatment of hair loss conditions.[12]Adelman, M.J., Bedford, L.M., Potts, G.A. (2021). Clinical Efficacy of popular oral hair growth supplement ingredients. The International Society of Dermatology. 60:1199-1210 Available at: … Continue reading

What is Nutrafol’s Pricing?

If you’ve read our previous review about Nutrafol, you will know that they charge a premium price for their products. So, let’s see what you’ll get for your money with this serum.

One 1.7 FL OZ bottle (50ml) will cost you $69. According to Nutrafol, a bottle should last around 3 months, however, if you are applying the product to the entire scalp instead of targeted areas it may not last as long (perhaps up to one month). Furthermore, Nutrafol recommends pairing this product with their supplements for the best results, which will add to the price tag.[13]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 19 February 2023

Other exosome-based treatments on the market use exosomes derived from adult human stem cells, and are usually delivered through subcutaneous injection. This however will cost you somewhere between $3500 – $6500.[14]BioInformant, (2022), An Introduction to Exosome Therapy And Its Costs. Available at: … Continue reading

So, let’s see if there is any scientific evidence to back up the claims made by Nutrafol about this product. We will take a deeper look at the patent-pending plant exosome technology and break down the claims made by Nutrafol about some other ingredients packed into this serum.

Product Science: Deep Dive

Firstly let’s have a look at what plant exosomes are.

Much like exosomes derived from other sources (mammals etc), plant exosomes are small bubble-like packages containing proteins, lipids, and bioactive molecules like mRNA that are essential for cell-cell interactions (Fig.2).

Figure 2. Plant exosomes are around 30-150 nm in diameter and contain proteins, lipids, and RNA needed for defense against pathogens and growth and development. Adapted from:[15]Keener, A. (2019). Exosomes make their debut in plant research. The Scientist. Available at: https://www.the-scientist.com/features/exosomes-make-their-debut-in-plant-research-65336 (Accessed: 21 … Continue reading

A 2022 study compared the efficacy of plant exosome treatment to conventionally used plant extracts in the modulation of gene expression in keratinocyte cells.[16]Cho, J.H., Hong, D.Y., Kim. D., Park, S.J., Kim, J.S., Kim, H.M., Yoon, J.E., Cho, J.S. (2022). Comparison of plant-derived exosomes as bioactive substances for skin application through comparative … Continue reading Keratinocytes are a type of cell found in skin and hair,  and the researchers treated these cells in a dish with either exosomes derived from the green tea or ginseng plants, plant extracts from the green tea, red ginseng, or distilled water as a control (which is what the extracts and exosomes were dissolved in).  

The researchers found that after 6 hours of treatment with either extract or exosomes, the ginseng-derived exosomes reduced keratinocyte expression of genes associated with aging like MMP12, MMP13, and NOTCH3. The green-tea-derived exosomes reduced the expression of MMP13 and NOTCH3 (Fig 3. A, B, C). For genes associated with skin regeneration, only the ginseng exosome treatment led to increased expression of FGF12. All the exosome and extract treatments increased HS3ST3A1 expression, and all treatments increased LOX expression (Fig 3. D, E, F). For genes associated with skin barrier and moisture, the two exosome treatments led to increased expression of VIM; the ginseng extract, green tea extracts, and ginseng exosome led to an increase in ELOVL3; the green tea exosome and ginseng extract treatments both led to an increase in KRT1 (Fig3. G, H, I).

To summarize, the ginseng exosome treatment appeared to perform the best at decreasing genes associated with aging and increasing most of the examined genes associated with skin regeneration, barrier, and moisture.  It’s important to note however that treatments with plant extracts are usually undertaken for at least 24 hours, which may be why less of a response is seen after 6 hours. However, this does also lead to the conclusion that exosomes may exert their effects faster than plant extracts. It would be beneficial if the researchers had done a microarray of a larger range of genes, however, to get a better idea of the overall effect exosomes might have.

Figure 3: Gene Expression of genes associated with aging (A, B, C), skin regeneration (D, E, F), and skin barrier and moisture (G, H, I). Adapted from:[17]Cho, J.H., Hong, D.Y., Kim. D., Park, S.J., Kim, J.S., Kim, H.M., Yoon, J.E., Cho, J.S. (2022). Comparison of plant-derived exosomes as bioactive substances for skin application through comparative … Continue reading

Importantly, there does not appear to be any research showing that plant exosomes have any effect on hair follicle growth or regeneration, even if they can modulate gene expression in skin cells.

Next, let’s have a look at some of the active ingredients in the Growth Activator Hair Serum and see if there is any clinical support to suggest that they support hair growth.

Ingredient List

“Aqua, Glycerin, Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Water, Propanediol, 1,2- Hexanediol, Niacinamide, Panthenol, Hydroxyethylcellulose, Lepidium Meyenii (Maca) Root Extract, Maltodextrin, Capryl- hydroxamic Acid, Equisetum Arvense (Horsetail) Extract, Hippophae Rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn) Fruit Extract, Laminaria Saccharina (Neptune Kelp) Extract, Chondrus Crispus (Seaweed) Extract, Sodium Metabisulfite, Alcohol, Arginine, Phospholipids, Lactic Acid, Melatonin, Potassium Sorbate, Lactobacillus Ferment, Pisum Sativum (Pea Sprout) Extract, Phosphate Buffered Saline, Withania Somnifera Seed Exo Extract”.[18]Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol Growth Activator. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 24 February 2023

Ashwagandha Exosomes

Nutrafol says that these exosomes come from the seeds of the ashwagandha plant and are filled with protein, RNA, and lipids. It’s also mentioned that they “boost cell renewal and naturally activate visibly thicker, stronger hair in as little as 90 days”.[19]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 20 February 2023

We couldn’t find any literature about exosomes derived from ashwagandha in regards to hair growth (or indeed anything else), therefore we cannot comment on whether it is an effective treatment for hair loss. The research paper referred to above would suggest the possibility that exosomes could alter gene expression in skin/hair cells in some way, but that has not been specifically shown for ashwagandha exosomes.

Melatonin

Melatonin is an essential hormone for the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle.[20]Vasey, C., McBride, J., Penta, K. (2021). Circadian Rhythm Dysregulation and Restoration: The Role of Melatonin. Nutrients. 13(10):1-21 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103480We have covered the details of how melatonin works regarding hair loss in our NutraM article (so head over there to take a deeper look) but we will provide a brief overview here.

What Nutrafol Says: Nutrafol doesn’t actually mention anything about melatonin on their website, the concentration they use, or why they use it in their Growth Activator Hair Serum.

What the Evidence says: Preliminary studies have shown that in 40 women with diffuse hair loss or androgenetic alopecia, formulations of 0.1% x 1ml of topical melatonin (in other words, 1 mg of melatonin per night) can improve hair loss outcomes. At these concentrations, however, blood concentrations of melatonin also increase – potentially leading to side effects like drowsiness or delayed reactions. Five further studies (which you can read about in our NutraM article) have found that lower concentrations – such as 0.1 mg of topical melatonin per day – also improve hair growth outcomes, but without affecting blood concentrations of melatonin. Additionally, researchers found that topical melatonin reduced the presence of seborrheic dermatitis over 3 months from 34.5% to 9.9%, and reduced excessive sebum production from 35.7% to 5.4% – indicating a potential anti-inflammatory effect.[21]Fischer, T.W., Burmeister, G., Schmidt, H.W., Elsner, P. (2004), Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled … Continue reading[22]Fischer TW, Trüeb RM, Hänggi G, Innocenti M, Elsner P. Topical Melatonin for treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Int J Trichology. 2012;4(4):236-245. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.111199 

Interestingly, Nutrafol claims that its Growth Activator Growth Serum is hormone-free. However, melatonin is a hormone, so they should be careful about making these claims. Furthermore, melatonin can be bought at a cheaper price alone, so it may be worth experimenting with that first.

Pea Sprouts

Pea sprouts are legumes that are thought to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hypertensive properties.[23]Borges-Martinez, E., Gallardo-Velazquez, T., Cardador-Martinez, A., Moguel-Concha, D., Osoriao-Revilla, G., Ruiz-Ruiz, J.C., Martinez, C.J. (2020). Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity … Continue reading

What Nutrafol Say: “An immature pea extract that promotes visible hair thickness with nutrients that minimize hair breakage”.[24]Nutrafol, (no date), Ingredients. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ingredients (Accessed: 21 February 2023

What the Evidence says: One study has been completed using 2% topical pea sprout extract on 10 volunteers aged between 46-60 (4 women and 6 men). The extract was applied to a defined area at the back of the scalp twice daily for two weeks.[25]Grothe, T., Wandrey, F., Schuerch, C. (2019). Short communication: Clinical evaluation of pea sprout extract in the treatment of hair loss. Phytotherapy Research. 34(2):428-431. Available at: … Continue reading At the beginning and the end of the study, 20 hairs were plucked from the defined scalp area, pooled, and analyzed using qPCR (an assay used to determine gene expression from extracted mRNA). After 2 weeks, topical pea sprout extract was found to strongly activate the expression of two genes that have been shown to promote hair growth in mice,  fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7) and noggin. Gene expression of FGF-7 increased by 56%, and noggin expression increased by 85%. 

There were however no measurements of hair number, thickness, or coverage, and a small sample size. Moreover, the volunteers did not have any type of hair disorder, so we do not know if people suffering from hair loss would have had a different response.

Maca Root Extract

Maca root, otherwise known as Peruvian ginseng, grows in the Andes at altitudes of around 4000-4500m. It has been found to have beneficial properties that can impact sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, memory, and learning amongst others as well as being an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.[26]Gonzales, G.F. (2012). Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012(193496):1-10. … Continue reading

What Nutrafol Say: “An adaptogenfor women that fortifies and strengthens hair when applied to the scalp”.[27]Nutrafol, (no date), Ingredients. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ingredients (Accessed: 21 February 2023 Adaptogen just means a medicine (usually herbal) that is considered to help the body adapt to stress.

What the Evidence says: After consumption of Maca root, serum levels of IL-6 are reduced (in a study not targeted towards hair growth or hair disorders).[28]Gonzales, G.F., Gasco, M., Lozada.I. (2013). Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the central Peruvian Andes over 4000m … Continue reading[29]Dell’Acqua, G., Richards, A., Thornton, M.J. (2020). The Potential Role of Nutraceuticals as an Adjuvant in Breast Cancer Patients to Prevent Hair Loss Induced by Endocrine Therapy. Nutrients. … Continue reading Interleukin 6 (IL-6) a chemical known for its pro-inflammatory properties has previously been implicated in hair loss disorders such as alopecia areata (AA).[30]Atwa M.A., Youssef N., Bayoumy N.M. (2016). T-helper 17 cytokines (interleukins 17, 21, 22, and 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in patients with alopecia areata: Association with clinical type and … Continue reading Therefore it has been hypothesized that maca root-induced reduction in IL-6 could improve hair growth for people with hair disorders 

Unfortunately, this is only hypothetical and there have been no published studies showing that maca root strengthens or fortifies the hair after use. 

Sea Buckthorn

Sea buckthorn contains antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, fatty acids, organic acids, and flavonoids. Sea buckthorn has also been reported to have anti-stress, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and regenerative properties.[31]Suryakumar, G., Gupta, A. (2011). Medicinal and therapeutic potential of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 138(2):268-278 Available at: … Continue reading 

What Nutrafol says: “These plants are rich sources of fatty acids and nutrients that deliver long-lasting hydration to the skin for nourished, healthy-looking hair”.

What the Clinical Evidence says: There is some evidence to show that patients with alopecia areata (AA), a type of hair loss, have lower levels of vitamin E than healthy people, however, this has been contradicted in other studies that have found no difference in vitamin E levels.[32]Ramadan R, Tawdy A, Abdel Hay R, Rashed L, Tawfik D. (2013) The antioxidant role of paraoxonase 1 and vitamin E in three autoimmune diseases. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. 26(1):2–7. Available … Continue reading[33]Naziroglu M, Kokcam I. (2000). Antioxidants and lipid peroxidation status in the blood of patients with alopecia. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 18(3):169–73. Available at: … Continue reading 

Vitamin E is also known as an antioxidant and helps to protect against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can negatively impact hair growth.[34]Trueb, R.M. (2009). Oxidative Stress in Ageing of Hair. International Journal of Trichology. 1(1):6-14. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-7753.51923 Topical vitamin E has emerged as a popular ingredient for a number of treatments of skin disorders because of its antioxidant properties and may be useful for treating keratosis follicularis (a rare skin disorder that leads to patches of thickened skin) and postherpetic neuralgia (a complication of shingles), amongst other conditions.[35]Keen, M.A., Hassan, I. (2016). Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatological Online Journal. 7(4):311-315. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.158494

Oral supplementation of tocotrienols (from the vitamin E family) has been shown to have a positive effect on hair growth in 38 people aged between 18-59 with hair loss after daily treatment (21 total with 19 male and 2 female) or placebo (17 total all male) over 8 months.[36]Beoy, L.A., Woei, W.J., Hay, Y.K. (2010). Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Tropical Life Sciences Research. 21(2):91-99 Available at: PMID 24575202 Unfortunately, this study did not determine the types of hair loss that the participants had, so it is possible that some positive results could be due to spontaneous resolution of hair loss that is seen in certain hair loss conditions. Furthermore, as it is an oral supplement, it may exert its effects differently from a topical treatment. This is important because there can be differential effects on efficacy and safety. For example, an oral treatment may work better, but a topical treatment may be safer for long-term usage.

Finally, it is important to mention that vitamin E – in forms for both topical and oral use – is extremely cheap to purchase elsewhere, so it isn’t worth buying this product for the vitamin E-containing ingredients alone.

Does Nutrafol Growth Activator Serum Work as a Hair Loss Treatment?

There do not appear to be any case studies on the Nutrafol website for us to see if Growth Activator Hair Serum actually works on patients. However, product reviews on Amazon do appear to be positive overall, with 4 out of 5 stars from over 1000 ratings. While this is not something that we would accuse Nutrafol of doing, Amazon reviews can be bought and made to look legit, so we should be careful about trusting these reviews.[37]BBC, (2021), Fake Amazon Reviews “being sold in bulk” online. BBC News. Available at: https://bbc.co.uk/news/business-56069472 (Accessed: 23 February 2023 There are websites out there that check Amazon product pages for unnatural or fake reviews by looking at word comparisons and phrase repetition (checking for repeated words across multiple reviews), amongst other things so it is worth doing your research.

In this case, we used one of the websites mentioned above, and it passed the checks, so it appears that these reviews are trustworthy.

So…what about clinical data?

Clinical Data

Nutrafol refers toa study on its website claiming that 87% of participants saw healthier hair after 30 days and that 85% saw improvement in hair quality after 30 days.[38]Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 19 February 2023 We could not find this study anywhere on the website, nor does it appear to be published (anywhere that we could find). The reference on their page says “Mibelle 2014”, which doesn’t give us a lot to go on. However, we did a PubMed search looking for that and came up with nothing. We also searched for “ashwagandha exosomes” and other keywords relating to the product and came up with nothing. Next, we looked at whether it could be a separate company that has done this study, and could only find a company called Mibelle Biochemistry, but when we looked through their publications, we could not see anything from 2014 related to the Growth Activator Hair Serum.

We have tried multiple times to contact the company through live chat, and we have sent an email to try and find out the details of the study, however, we have not received a reply at the time of writing. 

Is Nutrafol Growth Activator Serum Safe?

There is no safety or efficacy data currently available to us to show that Nutrafol Growth Activator Hair Serum is safe to use, therefore we cannot currently comment on whether this product is safe to use in the short- or long-term.

Should I Use It?

Whilst we would not recommend using a product with so little published data associated with it, you may want to experiment with the Growth Activator Hair Serum if:

  • You are happy buying a product with little available efficacy and safety data
  • No other products have worked for you
  • You want to use it in conjunction with other Nutrafol products

At this current time, however, this is not a product that we can recommend.

Recommendations to the Company

Nutrafol should publish the data (or make it more easily accessible) that it references on its website so that the consumer can see the studies for the Growth Activator Hair Serum. Furthermore, it would be helpful for the consumer to see some case studies from previous customers after use. 

Additionally, funding large-scale, placebo-controlled, pre-registered trials for this product will be crucial in allowing us to understand whether this product is suitable for treating hair loss or not.

Final Thoughts

We don’t recommend using a product that has little (or no) published safety and efficacy data associated with it. However, so long as you’re not price-sensitivei and you’re aware of the absence of data, you are free to try whatever you’d like.

Otherwise, you can probably buy most of these ingredients – barring Ashwagandha exosomes – for a fraction of the price elsewhere. We feel that further studies that are published in reputable journals or pre-registered clinical trials should be undertaken to ensure that the customer is getting their money’s worth. 

References

References
1 Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ (Accessed: 23 February 2023
2 Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator/ (Accessed: 23 February 2023
3 Kalluri, R., LeBleu, V.S. (2020). The biology, function, and biomedical applications of exosomes. Science. 367(6478):eaa6977. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau6977
4 Nutrafol, (no date) Hair Serum). Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 23 February 2023
5 Nutrafol, (no date), Ingredients. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ingredients (Accessed: 23 February 2023
6, 10, 13, 38 Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 19 February 2023
7 Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol. Available at: https://nutrafol.com (Accessed: 20 February 2023
8, 9 Nutrafol, (no date) Shop. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/products/ (Accessed: 19 February 2023
11 Gangadaran, P., Rajendran, R.L., Kwack, M.H., Jeyaraman, M., Hong, C.M., Sung, Y.K., Ahn, B.C. (2022). Application of Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Engineered Nanovesicles for Hair Growth: From Mechanisms to Therapeutics. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 10(963278):1-10 Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.963278
12 Adelman, M.J., Bedford, L.M., Potts, G.A. (2021). Clinical Efficacy of popular oral hair growth supplement ingredients. The International Society of Dermatology. 60:1199-1210 Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15344
14 BioInformant, (2022), An Introduction to Exosome Therapy And Its Costs. Available at: https://bioinformant.com/exosome-therapy/#:~:text=According%20to%20our%20research%2C%20exosomes,(full%2Dbody)%20conditions (Accessed: 19 February 2023
15 Keener, A. (2019). Exosomes make their debut in plant research. The Scientist. Available at: https://www.the-scientist.com/features/exosomes-make-their-debut-in-plant-research-65336 (Accessed: 21 February 2023
16, 17 Cho, J.H., Hong, D.Y., Kim. D., Park, S.J., Kim, J.S., Kim, H.M., Yoon, J.E., Cho, J.S. (2022). Comparison of plant-derived exosomes as bioactive substances for skin application through comparative analysis of keratinocyte transcriptome. Applied Biological Chemistry. 65(8):1-9 Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13765-022-00676-z
18 Nutrafol, (no date), Nutrafol Growth Activator. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 24 February 2023
19 Nutrafol, (no date), Hair Serum. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/nutrafol-growth-activator (Accessed: 20 February 2023
20 Vasey, C., McBride, J., Penta, K. (2021). Circadian Rhythm Dysregulation and Restoration: The Role of Melatonin. Nutrients. 13(10):1-21 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103480
21 Fischer, T.W., Burmeister, G., Schmidt, H.W., Elsner, P. (2004), Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology. 150(2):341-345 Available at: https:doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.05685.x
22 Fischer TW, Trüeb RM, Hänggi G, Innocenti M, Elsner P. Topical Melatonin for treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Int J Trichology. 2012;4(4):236-245. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.111199
23 Borges-Martinez, E., Gallardo-Velazquez, T., Cardador-Martinez, A., Moguel-Concha, D., Osoriao-Revilla, G., Ruiz-Ruiz, J.C., Martinez, C.J. (2020). Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sprouts. Food Science and Technology. 42:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.45920
24, 27 Nutrafol, (no date), Ingredients. Available at: https://nutrafol.com/ingredients (Accessed: 21 February 2023
25 Grothe, T., Wandrey, F., Schuerch, C. (2019). Short communication: Clinical evaluation of pea sprout extract in the treatment of hair loss. Phytotherapy Research. 34(2):428-431. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6528
26 Gonzales, G.F. (2012). Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012(193496):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/193496
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